That Time An Indian Argued To The U.S. Supreme Court That He Is A "Free White Person" And Entitled To Citizenship

In United States v. Bhagat Singh Thind, 261 U.S. 204 (1923), the United States Supreme Court unanimously ruled that Bhagat Singh Thind, who identified himself as a "high caste Aryan, of full Indian blood," was racially ineligible for naturalized citizenship due to the Naturalization Act of 1906.

FMI has obtained and is now releasing the fascinating briefs submitted by lawyers for the United States and Mr. Thind almost a century ago.

The lawyer for the United States argued before citing Rudyad Kipling's "The White Man's Burden":

We think that only such members of the Caucasian race should be held eligible for naturalization as may be found to be representatives of a white civilization.  Viewed in this way the people of India, from whatever stock they may have sprung, cannot be included.  Though they may have kept their blood pure for centuries, nevertheless, the centuries have removed them far from political fellowship with the white men of the Western World.

* * *

This is the Western civilization, sometimes denominated the European civilization, which our fathers knew and from which they were willing to recruit the citizenship of the Republic; but the Far East, including India, was not regarded by them as a part of such civilization.  To them, naturalization of the Far East Asiatics was unthinkable, because immigration of the teeming millions of Asia into America was likewise unthinkable.

While the argument of the lawyer for the United States focused mostly on history, the argument of the lawyer for Mr. Thind focused mostly on the then-contemporary understanding of racial classifications in a brief which cites to significant scientific works--which makes said lawyer's brief interesting to read.

FMI is a non-partisan educational organization approved by the Internal Revenue Service as a public foundation operating under Section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code.  FMI does not endorse, support, or oppose candidates or proposed legislation.  Contributions to FMI by individuals, corporations, and foundations are tax-deductible.

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Clinton Twp., MI 48038

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That Time The U.S. Supreme Court Ruled Who Constitutes "Free White Persons"

In Takao Ozawa v. United States, 260 U.S. 178 (1922), the United States Supreme Court dealt with a case in which a Japanese individual unsuccessfully sought American citizenship via the Naturalization Act of 1906, which only allowed "free white persons" to become naturalized citizens.  Mr. Ozawa alleged that Japanese people are "free white persons," and the U.S. Supreme Court justices unanimously ruled otherwise.

Although the U.S. Supreme Court's published opinion is easy to find and read, the briefs submitted by the attorneys representing the federal government and the State of California--which submitted an amicus curiae brief in support of the federal government's position--are not.  FMI obtained them and are publishing them now.

Argued the Attorney General of the State of California in the conclusion of his brief:

Counsel refer to the necessity for continuing the long friendship between Japan and the United States.  We respectfully submit that no nation can justly complain of the racial standard set by any other nation in the matter of qualification for citizenship.  This is a subject peculiarly within the discretion and control of each nation to determine for itself.

* * *

With a clashing of races, however, competing with each other for their very existence as in the agricultural development of the Western States, the racial type is of supreme moment.  The economic question must be answered.  Wise statesmen have recognized this as a vital question which can not be ignored.

* * *

[I]t is far better to have the occasional resentment of the unthinking than to create a condition which must produce for all time clash and conflict between dissimilar peoples of distinct races.
 

FMI is a non-partisan educational organization approved by the Internal Revenue Service as a public foundation operating under Section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code.  FMI does not endorse, support, or oppose candidates or proposed legislation.  Contributions to FMI by individuals, corporations, and foundations are tax-deductible.

To donate to FMI, please mail a check or money order made out to “Foundation for the Marketplace of Ideas, Inc.” to:

Foundation for the Marketplace of Ideas, Inc.
P.O. Box 381164
Clinton Twp., MI 48038

Please be sure to include your name and mailing address with your donation so that a tax-deductible donation receipt can be mailed back to you.

Alternatively, payment by credit card can be made via the website of GuideStar—which rates FMI as a platinum participant.  The online donation feature is immediately below the header and above the taskbar on the right side of the page.  You can make anonymous, tax-deductible, and single or recurring donations via GuideStar.

You can also sign up to pledge a monthly, non-tax-deductible donation by credit card to Kyle Bristow via Patreon or by making one-time, non-tax-deductible, and anonymous donations to Kyle Bristow via cryptocurrencies.

The Daily Stormer's Attorneys Fired The Legal Equivalent Of A Cruise Missile At SPLC

The legal team of Andrew Anglin of The Daily Stormer--which includes Attorney Marc Randazza, who is arguably the United States' top First Amendment litigator--filed a motion on November 30, 2017, to dismiss Tanya Gersh's lawsuit.

FMI is a non-partisan educational organization approved by the Internal Revenue Service as a public foundation operating under Section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code.  FMI does not endorse, support, or oppose candidates or proposed legislation.  Contributions to FMI by individuals, corporations, and foundations are tax-deductible.

To donate to FMI, please mail a check or money order made out to “Foundation for the Marketplace of Ideas, Inc.” to:

Foundation for the Marketplace of Ideas, Inc.
P.O. Box 381164
Clinton Twp., MI 48038

Please be sure to include your name and mailing address with your donation so that a tax-deductible donation receipt can be mailed back to you.

Alternatively, payment by credit card can be made via the website of GuideStar—which rates FMI as a platinum participant.  (The only donation feature is immediately below the header and above the taskbar.)

You can also sign up to pledge a monthly donation by credit card to Kyle Bristow via Patreon.

U.S. State Department's Unclassified Records Concerning Richard Spencer's Hungary Detention

In 2014, the Hungarian government arrested and deported Richard Spencer and banned the National Policy Institute from having a meeting in Budapest.

The Foundation for the Marketplace of Ideas, Inc., obtained unclassified records from the U.S. State Department concerning the incident.

FMI is a non-partisan educational organization approved by the Internal Revenue Service as a public foundation operating under Section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code.  FMI does not endorse, support, or oppose candidates or proposed legislation.  Contributions to FMI by individuals, corporations, and foundations are tax-deductible.

To donate to FMI, please mail a check or money order made out to “Foundation for the Marketplace of Ideas, Inc.” to:

Foundation for the Marketplace of Ideas, Inc.
P.O. Box 381164
Clinton Twp., MI 48038

Please be sure to include your name and mailing address with your donation so that a tax-deductible donation receipt can be mailed back to you.

Alternatively, payment by credit card can be made via the website of GuideStar—which rates FMI as a platinum participant.  (The only donation feature is immediately below the header and above the taskbar.)

You can also sign up to pledge a monthly donation by credit card to Kyle Bristow via Patreon.